List of specifications

LNP/BP stands for "Bitcoin Protocol / Lightning Network Protocol". This set of specifications covers standards & best practices for Layer 2, 3 solutions (and above) in cases when they do not require soft- or hard-forks on the Bitcoin blockchain level and are not directly related to issues covered in Lightning Network RFCs (BOLTs).

Basically, LNP/BPs cover everything that can be anchored to Bitcoin transactions, defines primitives for L2+ solution design and describes complex use cases which can be built from some primitives. This allows such solutions as financial assets, storage, messaging, computing and different forms of secondary markets leveraging Bitcoin security model and Bitcoin as a method of payment/medium of exchange.

Criteria for a LNP/BP specification proposal:

  • Should not be covered by existing or proposed BIPs

  • Should not cause soft- or hard-fork in Bitcoin blockchain (but may depend on

    soft-forks from an existing BIP proposals)

  • Should not distort Bitcoin miner's economic incentives

  • Should not pollute Bitcoin blockchain with unnecessary non-transaction related

    data or have to maintain such pollution as low as possible

  • Must not require a utility or security tokens to function (but may enable

    creation of digital assets or tokenized physical goods)

  • Must not depend on non-bitcoin blockchains (but may be applicable to other

    blockchains)

List of current LNP/BP proposals

No

Layer

Vertical

Title

Authors

Type

Status

1

Transaction (1)

Bitcoin protocol

Key tweaking: collision-resistant elliptic curve-based commitments

Maxim Orlovsky et al

Standard

Proposal

2

Transaction (1)

Bitcoin protocol

Deterministic embedding of cryptographic commitments into transaction output scriptPubkey

Maxim Orlovsky et al

Standard

Proposal

3

Transaction (1)

Bitcoin protocol

Deterministic definition of transaction output containing cryptographic commitment

Giacomo Zucco et al

Standard

Proposal

4

Client-validated data (3)

Cryptographic primitives

Multi-message commitment scheme with zero-knowledge provable unique properties

Maxim Orlovsky

Standard

Proposal

5

Transaction graph (2)

Bitcoin protocol

Universal short Bitcoin identifiers for blocks, transactions and their inputs & outputs

Christian Decker et al

Standard

Proposal

6

Transaction (1)

Bitcoin protocol

Deterministic bitcoin commitments

Maxim Orlovsky

Standard

Draft

7

Client-validated data (3)

Consensus layer

Strict encoding

Peter Todd, Maxim Orlovsky

Standard

Planned

8

Client-validated data (3)

Cryptographic primitives

Single-use-seals

Peter Todd, Maxim Orlovsky

Informational

Draft

9

Client-validated data (3)

Consensus layer

Client-side validation

Peter Todd, Maxim Orlovsky

Informational

Draft

10

Transaction graph (2)

Bitcoin protocol

Bitcoin transaction output-based single-use-seals with pay-to-contract commitments

Peter Todd et al

Standard

Proposal

11

Client-validated graphs (4)

Smart contracts

RGB: Client-validated confidential smart contracts using bitcoin transaction graphs for Bitcoin and Lightning Network

Maxim Orlovsky et al

Informational

Proposal

12

Client-validated graphs (4)

Consensus layer

RGB Schema: client-side validation rules for RGB smart contracts

Maxim Orlovsky

Standard

Planned

13

Client-validated graphs (4)

Consensus layer

RGB client-side verification and data serialization

Maxim Orlovsky

Standard

Planned

14

Client-validated data (3)

Smart contracts

Bech32 encoding for client-validated data

Maxim Orlovsky

Standard

Planned

15

OSI Session (i5)

Internet2

Handshake and encryption in network communications based on Noise_XK (BOLT-8 extract)

Multiple peers

Standard

Proposal

16

OSI Session (i5)

Internet2

LNP handshake over WebSockets

Maxim Orlovsky

Standard

Planned

17

OSI Session (i5)

Internet2

LNP handshake over ZMQ sockets

Maxim Orlovsky

Standard

Planned

18

OSI Transport (i4)

Internet2

Native message framing protocol (BOLT-8 extract)

Multiple peers

Standard

Planned

19

OSI Presentation (i6)

Internet2

ZMQ-based RPC and ESB protocols for microservices

Multiple peers

Standard

Planned

20

Application (5)

Smart contracts

RGB fungible assets schema (RGB-20)

Multiple peers

Standard

Final

21

Application (5)

Smart contracts

RGB schema for NFTs representing ownership rights (RGB-21)

Maxim Orlovsky

Standard

Proposal

22

Application (5)

Smart contracts

RGB reputation and identity schema (RGB-22)

Maxim Orlovsky, Sabina Sachtachtinskagia

Standard

Draft

23

Application (5)

Smart contracts

RGB verifiable-unique history log for auditable data (RGB-23)

Maxim Orlovsky, Giacomo Zucco

Standard

Planned

24

Application (5)

Smart contracts

RGB-24 schema for decentralized global name system (DGNS)

Maxim Orlovsky

Standard

Planned

30

Application (5)

Smart contracts

RGB-wrapped native blockchain assets schema (RGB-30)

Maxim Orlovsky

Standard

Planned

25-29, 31

Reserved

For the future use by RGB schemata

32

Application (5)

Bitcoin

BIP-32 derivation path extension for read-only wallets

Maxim Orlovsky

Standard

Draft

33

Client-validated data (3)

Lightning network protocol

Lightspeed: micro-payments for Lightning Network

Maxim Orlovsky

Draft

34

Client-validated data (3)

Cryptographic primitives

Zero-knowledge arguments for data persistence using probabilistic checkable proofs

Maxim Orlovsky

Standard

Draft

35

OSI Application (i7)

Lightning network protocol

Bifrost: LN message extensions for RGB data propagation

Maxim Orlovsky

Standard

Planned

36

OSI Presentation (i6)

API

Recommendations for API design

Maxim Orlovsky

Informational

Draft

37

Application (5)

Smart contracts

Invoicing formats for RGB-20 fungible assets schema

Alekos Filini

Standard

Rejected

38

Application (5)

Smart contracts

Universal LNP/BP invoices supporting Bitcoin, LN & RGB

Maxim Orlovsky

Standard

Draft

39

Transaction graph (2)

Bitcoin protocol

Bitcoin transaction output-based single-use-seals with sign-to-contract commitments

Maxim Orlovsky et al

Standard

Planned

40

Transaction graph (2)

State channels

Storm: trustless storage with escrow contracts

Maxim Orlovsky

Standard

Draft

41

OSI Application (i7)

Lightning network protocol

Lightning network message extensions for Storm

Maxim Orlovsky

Standard

Planned

42

OSI Application (i7)

Internet2

Uniform encoding for internet2 addresses

Maxim Orlovsky

Draft

43

Application (5)

Smart contracts

RGB-enabled BIP43 purpose field & identity system

Maxim Orlovsky

Standard

Draft

44

Application (5)

Smart contracts

Script templating: BIP-32 & LNPBP-43 key derivations within for non-miniscript-compatible Bitcoin scripts

Maxim Orlovsky

Standard

Draft

45

OSI Application (i7)

Lightning network protocol

Lightning network message extensions for decentralized exchange functionality

Maxim Orlovsky

Standard

Planned

46

OSI Application (i7)

Lightning network protocol

Channel funding with RGB assets

Maxim Orlovsky

Standard

Draft

47

OSI Application (i7)

Lightning network protocol

Multipeer lightning channels

Maxim Orlovsky

Standard

Planned

48

OSI Application (i7)

Lightning network protocol

Bilateral channel funding

Maxim Orlovsky

Standard

Draft

49

OSI Application (i7)

Lightning network protocol

Synchronized multi-hop state updates via delegation in Lightning network

Maxim Orlovsky, Christian Decker

Standard

Planned

50

OSI Application (i7)

Lightning network protocol

Channel transaction structure negotiation using PSBTs (generalized LN)

Maxim Orlovsky, Christian Decker

Standard

Planned

51

OSI Application (i7)

Lightning network protocol

Decentralized naming & name resolution system

Maxim Orlovsky

Standard

Planned

52-57

Reserved

For the future use by lightning network protocol extensions

58

Client-validated data (3)

Cryptographic primitives

Apophis: distributed elliptic curve-based key creation with shared secrets

Maxim Orlovsky

Standard

Draft

59

Transaction graph (2)

Bitcoin protocol

Typhon: trustless Bitcoin sidechains

Maxim Orlovsky

Standard

Draft

60

Client-validated data (3)

Game theory

Ibiss: incentive-based interactive anonymous settlement scheme for computation integrity arguments

Maxim Orlovsky, Sabina Sachtachtinskagia

Informational

Draft

61

Client-validated data (3)

Game theory

Toth: incentive-based interactive settlement scheme for computation integrity arguments with reputation

Maxim Orlovsky, Sabina Sachtachtinskagia

Informational

Draft

62

Transaction graph (2)

Smart contracts

Prometheus: trustless multiparty computing with escrow & arbitration using Ibiss protocol on bitcoin blockchain

Maxim Orlovsky

Standard

Draft

63

Application (5)

Smart contracts

Prometheus+: trustless multiparty computing with escrow & arbitration using Ibiss2 protocol over LN with tokenized RGB reputation

Maxim Orlovsky

Standard

Planned

64-79

Reserved

For the future use by lightning network protocol extensions

80

Client-validated data (3)

Cryptographic primitives

Merkle mountain ranges

Peter Todd

Standard

Final

81

Client-validated data (3)

Cryptographic primitives

Tagged merkle trees for client-side-validation

Maxim Orlovsky, Peter Todd

Standard

Draft

82

Transaction (1)

Bitcoin protocol

OpenTimestamps bitcoin transaction commitments

Peter Todd

Standard

Final

83

Client-validated graphs (4)

Smart contracts

OpenTimestamps proof construction & verification

Peter Todd

Standard

Final

83

Application (5)

Smart contracts

OpenTimestamps proof serialization

Peter Todd

Standard

Final

84

Application (5)

Smart contracts

OpenTimestamps calendar and attestation services

Peter Todd

Standard

Final

85

Client-validated data (3)

Consensus layer

Strict encoding of Bitcoin-related data types

Maxim Orlovsky

Standard

Planned

86

Client-validated data (3)

Smart contracts

AluVM: virtual machine for client-side-validation

Maxim Orlovsky

Standard

Draft

87

Client-validated data (3)

Smart contracts

AluVM extended instructions for handling RGB state validation

Maxim Orlovsky

Standard

Planned

100

Transaction graph (2)

Bitcoin protocol

Scalable & confidential single-use-seal commitment layer 1

Standard

Brainstorming

Invited or planned proposals to join LNP/BP standards family

  1. Discreet log contracts: deterministic transaction structure, embedding into

    lightning network, wire protocols

  2. Generalized lightning network standartisation and related eltoo and PTLC

    proposals

Layers for LNP/BP proposals:

No

Title

Description

Examples

1

Transaction

Data or protocols defined for a single bitcoin transaction (both off-chain and on-chain)

Cryptographic primitives, advanced multisignature schemes, transaction structure

2

Transaction graph

Data and protocols defined on a transaction graph

Blockchains, sidechains, state channels

3

Client-validated data

Protocols and formats for off-chain data (persistent or ephemeral)

Cryptographic primitives, serialization

4

Client-validated graphs

Protocols and formats for off-chain graph structures

Complex commitment schemes, schemata

5

Application

Specific high-level applications build of underlying layers

Assets, audit, storage, computing, messaging, decentralized exchanges and marketplaces

Additionally to these layers there is a set of network protocol layers organized according to ISO OSI model, with numbers prefixed using i symbol ("complex dimension").

Verticals for LNP/BP proposals:

Name

Description

Examples

Cryptographic primitives

Basic cryptographic functions applied at the level of transactions or client-validated data

Commitment schemes, zero knownledge

Consensus layer

Standards critical for consensus in distributed systems

Data encoding, validation rules

Internet2

Standards for end-to-end encrypted censorship-resistant networking communications (Internet2)

Network encryption, decentralized naming systems, network data serialization

Bitcoin protocol

Changes at the level of bitcoin protocol

Commitments in bitcoin transactions, single-use-seals applications to bitcoin, layer 1 enhancements

Lightning network protocol

Changes to lighting-network related standards and state channel mechanics

New types of state channels, new lightning network message types, changes in channel transaction structure

Smart contracts

Distributed smart contract execution environment and VMs

Bitcoin scripts, scriptless scripts, RGB, Simplicity language

Game theory

Game-theoretical setups for trustless protocols

Incentive schemes with bitcoin transactions & RGB smart contracts